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Vik Rampersad, Student of history especially military history
The reasons why France collapsed are myriad but basically they boil down to a few main ones

二战中导致法国军队崩溃的原因有很多,但总体上可以归结于以下几个主要原因:

Very poor communication between the front line and the rear command such that by the time orders reached the front the units were either already overrun or simply not where they were supposed to be. The military leadership was inept (at best) and the political and military leaders detested each other

www.191game.com_【官方首页】-红狐游戏前线军队与后方指挥所之间讯息不通,结果,要么后方指挥所的命令未能及时送达,要么被传送到了错误的地点。法国军队领导人无能(这还是往好了说),而且法国的政治和军事领导人彼此之间充满了憎恨。

Outdated tactics. The French on paper were the strongest force in Europe possessing the best tanks, excellent artillery, good defenses , slightly superior aircraft and more troops. Unfortunately the French never concentrated their armor to meet the Germans and their fighter forces went AWOL allowing the Germans local air superiority which proved decisive. In addition, the French (and British) assumed that the Germans would fight a conventional war which meant a slow advance with halts to reorganise and bring up artillery and supplies in order to demolish strongpoints. Instead the Germans used air power as mobile artillery to blast their way through the French lines and bypassed strongpoints to be mopped up later. By not having to transport their artillery across rivers and obstacles they were able to move at astonishing rates which exploited the slow French lines of communication

战术过时:从纸面数据上来看,当时的法国的确是欧洲最强大的力量,拥有当时最好的坦克、火炮、良好的防御措施、更加先进的战机和更大规模的军队。然而不幸的是,法国军队一直都未能将自己的装甲部队集中起来对抗纳粹德军,而法国空军擅离职守,这使得纳粹德军获得了制空权,而这一点是决定性的因素。此外,法国(和英国)情报机构都预测,纳粹德军将会发动一场常规战,即:缓慢推进→停顿→重组军队→运送火炮和补给来摧毁战略要点。然而,纳粹德军却将空中力量当做了移动火炮,将法军防线炸开了口子,并绕过了那些军事要点,随后又将其清除掉。由于纳粹德军无需将火炮运送过河流和各种障碍物,他们能够以极其惊人的速度推进,面对法军战线中的龟速通讯,纳粹德军占尽了优势。



In contrast, the Russians were viewed as hopelessly backward, uncivilised and ill equipped. The great purges of Stalin in 37–39 had decimated the Red army commanders and Russia had been fought to a standstill by the tiny ill equipped Finns in the Winter war. There was not a single military strategist who believed that Russia could withstand the army that had destroyed the best that Europe could put in the field - and they were correct. The Germans initially advanced into Russia at an even faster rate than in France capturing hordes of prisoners and territory until the onset of Autumn rain and the coldest Winter in over a century halted them

www.191game.com_【官方首页】-红狐游戏相比之下,当时世人都认为苏联人非常落后、不文明而且设备落后。1937年至1939年间,大量红军指挥官都命丧斯大林的大清洗运动,不仅如此,在冬季战争中,装备简陋的芬兰人甚至让俄军止步不前。当时,没有一位军事战略家相信苏联能够抵挡得住摧毁了欧洲最强军队的纳粹德军——实际上,这些战略家的预测是正确的。纳粹德军在苏联的推进速度甚至比法国更高,俘虏了大量的囚犯,并占领了大面积的领土,直到秋雨和最冷的冬天阻止了纳粹德军的步伐。

What saved Russia was the German delay in launching Barbarossa as well as the decision to strike for the oilfields rather than Moscow as a priority target. Had Moscow fallen Stalin would in all likelyhood have been ousted and Russia forced to retreat beyond the Ural mountains thus allowing the Germans to consolidate their gains and build up a supply chain. Additionally Russian roads were archaic and unpaved and turned into metre deep quagmires in the Autumn rains preventing any effective movement of troops and supplies. The lack of mechanisation of the German army was its Achilles heel in this regard with the bulk of its transport being horse drawn and captured British and French lorries or air supply on VERY primitive airfields where the attrition rate from accidents was horrendous.

然而,纳粹德军推迟发动“巴巴罗萨”行动,放弃优先进攻莫斯科,反而选择先进攻苏联的油田,这才是让苏联留下喘息机会的原因。如果当时莫斯科被纳粹德军攻陷,那么,斯大林很可能会被赶下台,红军不得不撤退到乌拉尔山脉以外的区域,而纳粹德军则可以巩固自己的成果,并成功建立起供应链。www.191game.com_【官方首页】-红狐游戏不仅如此,苏联的道路很糟糕,根本没有铺设柏油马路,一旦秋雨来临,就会变成一米深的沼泽,这也阻碍了纳粹德军的行军和补给效率。缺乏机动性成为了纳粹德军的致命弱点,于是,纳粹德军不得不利用马匹、从英军和法军缴获的货车来完成庞大的运输任务,或者通过原始机场获得空中补给,而在这期间,各种事故所造成的损耗率是极高的。

The Russian railroads were of a different gauge to those in Europe which meant that, unlike in France, the German railroads could not use Russian lines to supply the troops rapidly and in bulk. The Russian scorched earth policy also prevented the Germans from supplying on the march and compelled them to bring in supplies from the rear… a very slow exercise that handicapped any advance. Russia thus devolved from Blitzkreig at the onset of Barbarossa to a more traditional WWI conflict with supply dumps having to be established and troops and materiel concentrated before an attack could be mounted. This loss of rapid mobility handicapped the Germans and allowed the Russians to construct some truly astounding defense lines

苏联铁路轨距与欧洲铁路不同,这就意味着,德国无法使用苏联的铁路来快速大批运输军队,这和法国的情况完全不同。不仅如此,苏联的焦土政策也阻碍了纳粹德军的补给和行军速度,迫使其从后方运输补给物,而这一行为极大阻碍了纳粹德军的推进效率。因此,深陷苏联战场的纳粹德军不得不将“巴巴罗萨”行动初期采取的闪电战转变为传统“一战”模式的战争,必须要首先建立补给站、集中军队和物资才能够发动进攻。www.191game.com_【官方首页】-红狐游戏机动能力的丧失阻碍了纳粹德国的前进步伐,却让苏联人有机会建造起令人惊人的防线。

Another factor was that the Russians would often fight to the death rather than surrender, especially as the examples of those who had surrendered were made. Whole families of captured Russian troops were executed and any troops trying to surrender were shot by the dreaded NKVD. It was better to die fighting the Germans than die at the hands of the NKVD. The German treatment of Russian prisoners was truly appalling and the rumours of this spread throughout the Red Army thus bolstering their resolve to fight to the death.



Joe Chatterton
The French Surrendered because their situation was hopeless. The German Tanks had overrun The Low Countries and Northern France. While Italy and Spain were still technically nutreal they were both sympathetic to Hitler and surrounded France. The French’s only real ally at the time was the British. Who despite what most say was in many ways a liability to the French. They were poorly organized and were know to retreat at the slightest pressure without informing their French Allies leaving the French flanks vandable. The British did have a powerful Navy but battle ships do not help on land. At Dunkirk the British Completely abandoned the French. During the Start of WWII the French Military was suppior to the British in almost every way. The only thing that saved Britain From the surrendering with the French is there geography position. And the weakness of the German Navy. Turning to the Eastern Front and The USSR. The USSR would have been defeated if Hitler had acted more rationally. Moscow was in site and if he had advanced on it rather than attacking Stalingrad the Soviet unx would have been forced to surrender. During the early stages of the war the Soviet army performed very poorly. Germans occupied Soviet lands far larger than the whole of France. To directly answer the question the reason that Britain and the USSR were able to hold out while the French surrendered had quite little to do with military strength but everything to do with geography.

法国选择投降,是因为它所面对的是一个令人绝望的局面。当时,纳粹德国的坦克已经占领了低地国家(荷兰、比利时和卢森堡)以及法国北部,而意大利和西班牙却保持了中立态度,它们对希特勒和被包围的法国都充满了同情。当时,法国的唯一盟友就只有英国一家了。www.191game.com_【官方首页】-红狐游戏不管他人怎么说,当时的英国却是压在法国身上的负担,英军组织性很差,稍微遇到些压力就急着撤退,甚至连自己的法国盟友都没有通知一下便撤走了,结果让法国的侧翼暴露遭受攻击。英国的确拥有一支强大的海军,但是这对于陆地战争并没有太大帮助。在敦刻尔克,英国彻底抛弃了自己的法国盟友。www.191game.com_【官方首页】-红狐游戏在二战初始,法国几乎在所有方面的表现都要优于英国。让英国避免向法国一样投降的原因只有一个,那就是它的地理位置。受限于海军的实力,纳粹德国将战场转向了东部前线和苏联。如果希特勒表现得更加理性一些,那么苏联一定会输掉战争。莫斯科就坐落在那个地方,如果希特勒没有选择进攻斯大林格勒,而是选择继续向前推进,那样苏联将会被迫投降。www.191game.com_【官方首页】-红狐游戏在战争初期,苏联红军的战绩十分糟糕。德国人所占领的苏联土地要比法国还要大很多。直截了当地说,英国和苏联能够抵抗纳粹德国多年,而法国却很快投降的原因和军事实力关系并不大,但是和地理位置有很重要的关系。